- 1It introduces reference: kauri acid, sterol beer, Mulberroside B, Monsanto ketone C, N- trans-ferulic acid tyramine, ski
- 2New exclusive worldwide: A Fritillary base level off Tony base A Fritillary Fritillary alkali alkali acetate propionate,
- 3Determination of electrophoretic paint resistant to salt spray
- 4Latest Release: 7- epi-10-deacetyl paclitaxel HPLC: 99.48%
- 5Our newly developed celandine red base technology program
- 6Test methods and reagents Instrument nitrite need to use, what needs attention
Chemicals used for laboratory staff on the health hazards which
Chemicals now roughly divided into two categories, one is having a corrosive irritant drugs, a class of toxic chemicals.
Some small amount of material into the human body or the entire body causing local irritation dysfunction of any disease known as poisoning, such substances called poison. According invasive way to poison, poisoning divided intake poisoning, respiratory poisoning and exposure to poisoning. Contact with toxic and corrosive poisoning have some differences, contacts, poisoning through the skin into the subcutaneous tissue, not necessarily immediately cause burns the surface, corrosive poisoning is to make contact with that part of it immediately organized hurt.
Relationship between dose and effect between the poison called toxic poisons, semi-lethal dose (LD50) or median lethal concentration (LC50) on diet as a measure of acute toxicity index, the effects of toxicants into highly toxic, highly toxic , moderately toxic, low toxicity, low toxicity five. The above classification does not consider its chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity, China''s national standard GB 5044-85 "occupational exposure to toxic hazard degree," according to the poison LD50 values, status and consequences of acute and chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, workplace maximum allowable concentration six indicators of trade-offs, the degree of harm poison into 1-ⅳ grade.
(2) irritant corrosive substances
Some of these drugs are irritating to eyes, mucous membranes, trachea have a stimulating effect, corrosion damage skin tissue, the eye is very dangerous. Causing slight sore throat, mucous membrane irritation (some tear); causing severe bronchitis, emphysema, and even death. Such drugs include:
① acids, acid anhydride and an acid generating material with moisture. Such as sulfuric acid, hydrofluoric acid, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid, phosphorus pentoxide, acetic acid, acetic anhydride, acid chloride compounds. Have the strong corrosive substances described below:
(A) Sulfuric acid is highly corrosive acids, absorbent and strong, so that tissue carbonization reaction product of intense heat and water; and perchloric acid, potassium permanganate reaction, can explode!
(B) hydrofluoric acid, strong corrosive acid, abnormal wound pain, can hurt the injured and infirm to shock.
(C) nitric acid and nitrogen oxides strong irritant, corrosive, or skin tissue Proteins make it turn yellow.
② bases: such as sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, aqueous ammonia (ammonia), the organic amine and the hydrolysis of the compound generating ammonia. The first three particularly dangerous to the eyes.
③ ω- halogen and organic halides. In addition to having a strong irritant, corrosive, there is a strong oxidant and tear.
(3) toxic chemicals
We refer to those that can trace chemicals inhaled lethal drugs are highly toxic mercury and mercury salts, cyanide (hydrogen cyanide, potassium cyanide ...... etc.), hydrogen sulfide, arsenic, carbon monoxide, strychnine ...... and so on are highly toxic drugs. Other poison is very dangerous. Toxic drugs on the human body, so that the injured tissues and organs; now their toxicity are listed below:
① asphyxiate: such as carbon monoxide poisoning and erythrocyte binding, combined with the blood leaving the cyanide poisoning, respiratory palsy make hydrogen sulfide poisoning. Toxic hydrogen sulfide lower than hydrogen cyanide, but it is flavored, alert people to take measures immediately, or leave as much suck, you feel the smell, but with sweet, very dangerous.
② disrupt the internal body physiology, organ damage, such poisons to cause systemic poisoning, and each object with its poison damage. Such as benzene depth bone marrow, hematopoietic organ damage, caused by the results of patients with systemic weakness, anemia, low white blood cells and so on; haloalkoxy liver and kidney and nerve damage, bone damage barium salt, mercury salt damage to the brain central nervous system, and so on.
③ anesthesia: ether, chloroform and the like.
④ allergy drugs: cause allergic reactions in some people, it is the most common contact dermatitis.
⑤ carcinogenic drugs. We already know that many drugs are carcinogenic. Long-term exposure such as lead, mercury, beryllium, cadmium, etc ...... can cause cancer.
The following compounds are most particularly:
(B) benzopyrene and other polycyclic compounds, present in the asphalt, the flue (chimney) ash, tobacco combustion also generate benzopyrene. High sweep flue ash workers and people who smoke incidence of lung cancer.
(C) benzidine, β- naphthylamine dye intermediates, long-term exposure, bladder cancer incidence, this solid in the laws of many UK, Japan, US states also prohibited the production and use of benzidine and β- naphthylamine. Medical laboratory examination for occult blood still used benzidine, the staff should be particularly careful.
(D) the second level of nitrosamines: Now medicine has proved the second stage of carcinogenic nitrosamines rate is very high, some local residents since the cancer was eating certain foods or contain nitrosamines water has nitrosamines.
He said a few examples around:
A workshop director in the production of a drug can not return to his office, not into his workshop, because a volatile liquid to make him jealous, cough, asthma.
A brother do anticancer drugs, from the initial step to the final product full of highly toxic, non-protection is not critical, but the child intelligence development slower than their peers, the doctor said he was some kind of toxic substance exposure caused.
When University, a man drank too much, the more acid solution beaker hybrid drink, remember their group with solvents like acetonitrile, sent to hospital, and later people live.
A school (not to mention the name of the school) a small accident occurred, glass flying into the face of a girl.
It was often hot filtration or extraction, the solvent is smoked breath.
Do not think that the glove is the Almighty, the solvent can permeate the glove under a table, you will find a lot of time and almost bare hands, especially those transdermal stuff!
Do not think that is the universal gas masks, there is scope, the actual use, high concentrations, and also that virtue!
Do not think that the hood is absolutely safe, wind qualified? Rational design of air vents do?
Do not think inorganic absolutely safe, many people were burnt acid? H2S is smoked?
...... Really affect, in particular, there is long-term exposure, poor body resistance, which caused particular ghost know. I wish you a speedy fruition chemical monarch, before doing the experiment, remember looking through the MSDS.
Any toxic, corrosive, strong oxidizing, strong reduction, pyrophoric, malodorous substances and solutions, as well as explosive, flammable substances are hazardous chemicals. Such as regular contact and used in the experiment alkali metals, metal hydrides, organometallic compounds, toxic gases, cyanide, acid halide, diazo compounds, nitro compounds, N- nitrosamines, peroxides, toxic organic phosphine compounds, chlorosulfonic acid, fuming sulfuric acid, mercury, heavy metal salts are listed dangerous goods belong. These dangerous goods once they become waste after the experiment must be promptly and properly treated or destroyed, in order to avoid accidents.
Previous:Monocrotaline introduction and use What precautions Next: 没有了！！